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As you can see bread can contain ingredients that those of us who have type 2 diabetes need to avoid... salt and fats. It pays to check the labels. Leavening Leavening is the adding of gas to the dough creating bubbles that make it swell up. This makes the bread lighter and easier to chew. When flour and water are combined to make dough the starch in the flour mixes with the water to form a matrix. When this mixture is leavened (ie gas is added) the dough rises . Then when it sets the bubbles remain trapped in the dough. There are several ways dough can be leavened. However most types of bread are leavened using biological agents containing micro-organisms that release carbon dioxide as part of their life-cycle. These are either yeasts or sourdough starters. Yeast ferments some of the carbohydrates in the flour.
So if the first ingredient is whole-wheat flour it is likely that the bread has a lower GI value than bread for which refined flour is listed as the first ingredient. Sometimes the percentage by weight of each main ingredient is shown in brackets in the list and this information can be used to estimate whether the bread has a low GI value. Breads diabetics should avoid White rolls have a GI value of about 73 white loaf about 71 and baguettes a rating of 95 which is extremely high. Indeed to control your diabetes you need to avoid all white bread and also brown bread as it is essentially only coloured white bread. Other breads you need to avoid are quick breads such as Irish soda bread unless they are made from wholemeal flour breads with a high salt content and malted breads which usually have a high sugar content.
As you can see the germ and bran contain lots of healthy stuff that is not found in the endosperm. Whole grains are cereal grains in their natural state ie they contain all three main parts endosperm bran and germ. Refined grains are groats from which the bran and germ have been removed by grinding and sifting. Refining causes the grains to lose some of their nutritional value. Sometimes nutrients such as vitamins are added back. But as these represent a small fraction of the nutrients removed refined grains are nutritionally inferior to whole grains. Removing the bran and grinding the grains into a fine powder increases the glycemic index value (GI) of the grain ie you digest glucose from refined grains quicker than glucose from whole grains which as a diabetic is not what you want.