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Improvers are additives used to quicken the rising time increase volume and enhance texture. Salt is one of the most common improvers; it is used to enhance flavour and the crumb (the inside of the bread) by strengthening the gluten. Improvers may include ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride. Certain fats such as butter vegetable oils lard and egg fat are solid at room temperature. These shortenings as they are known are used to keep the structure together during the development of the gluten. A fat content of about 3% by weight is considered best to enhance leavening. Fats also help tenderise bread and preserve its freshness. Cooking is usually by baking in an oven. But bread can be made by frying in oil (eg Indian puri) baking on a dry frying pan (eg Mexican tortillas) and by steaming (eg Chinese mantou).
You also need to avoid breads made with shortening unless the fat content is less than 3% by weight as well as all fried breads such as Indian puri. This still leaves you with plenty of breads you can eat and still beat your diabetes. Breads diabetics can eat Whole-grain breads usually have low GI values (less than 56). Regular whole-grain bread has a GI value of about 51 while the rating for pumpernickel is about 50. Barley bread (if you can find it) is very dense and has a GI value of about 34 while wheat tortillas have a rating of about 30. Thus as a diabetic you can eat most wholemeal breads rye breads and crisp breads made from rye. You can also eat unleavened flatbreads such as whole-wheat Indian breads like roti and chapatti though you need to check the salt and fat content.
This produces bubbles of carbon dioxide which makes the dough rise. This kind of leavening requires proofing ie a resting time to allow the yeast time to reproduce and consume carbohydrates. Breads leavened with yeast have a distinctive flavour. A sourdough starter is a paste of flour and water containing yeast and lactobacilli which has been obtained from a previous batch of dough. It works in the same way as yeast by creating bubbles but it requires much more proofing time than yeast. Sourdough bread has a sour tangy taste. It is used for rye-based breads where yeast is not really effective in leavening the dough. Chemical leaveners are chemical mixtures that release carbon dioxide or other gases when they react to moisture and heat.