Tofu Based Buttermilk Alternative Substitute Yogurt For Dairy Free And Vegans Go Dairy Free
Casein May be defined as the major protein which is precipitated at pH 4.6 and is exclusive to milk. It is present in spherical bodies as micelles which vary in size with negative surface charge. The caseins of milk may be sub-divided into five main classes αs1 αs2 β gamma and k-caseins. In milk casein is present in combination with calcium in the form of calcium caseinate or more precisely calcium hyhdrogen caseinate. Whey proteins Are those in the whey fraction after the precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. These are the alpha-lactalbumin beta-lactoglobulin immunoglobulins lactoferrin transferrin proteose-peptone fractions etc. Most of these are globular proteins subject to heat denaturation. α-lactalbumin exists in variants A and B forms and is susceptible to denaturation by unfolding of the tertiary structure. β-lactoglobulin is identical to blood globulin and insoluble in water and is responsible for the transfer of antibodies.
Udder infection promotes an increased level of chloride in the milk and depresses the secretion of lactose. Proteins Milk protein is a rich source of essential amino acids. Whey proteins are proteins that are passed along with the whey portion after the coagulation of milk. They contain 51% essential amino acids when compared to 45% in casein. The sulphur containing amino acids which are considered essential and important are found in higher concentration in whey protein than in casein. Usually the quality of egg proteins are regarded as very high. But the net protein utilization biological value and the protein efficiency ratio of milk protein come neck in neck with the quality of egg protein. Lactalbumin a whey protein whose biological value net protein utilization and protein efficiency ratio is considered superior when compared to the major milk protein casein. Normally double the quantum of vegetable protein is required to meet the daily requirement of essential amino acids when compared to that obtained from the milk proteins.
Normal milk contains 0.1% whereas colostrum contains 6 %. Milk fat The digestibility of milk is comparatively higher than other oils and fats. This can be attributed to existence of fat globules in aqueous phase forming an emulsion. This facilitates its easy absorption through the intestinal tract when compared to other fats which have to be emulsified with bile salts enzymes from pancreas and fat splitting lipases. Endowed with short and medium chain fatty acids milk fat can be easily absorbed when compared to long chain fatty acids because of the ability of the lipases to split the ester bonds in the former. Supplementation of milk fat in the diet increases the energy density. When compared to human milk the cow milk is low in essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids.