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As you can see bread can contain ingredients that those of us who have type 2 diabetes need to avoid... salt and fats. It pays to check the labels. Leavening Leavening is the adding of gas to the dough creating bubbles that make it swell up. This makes the bread lighter and easier to chew. When flour and water are combined to make dough the starch in the flour mixes with the water to form a matrix. When this mixture is leavened (ie gas is added) the dough rises . Then when it sets the bubbles remain trapped in the dough. There are several ways dough can be leavened. However most types of bread are leavened using biological agents containing micro-organisms that release carbon dioxide as part of their life-cycle. These are either yeasts or sourdough starters. Yeast ferments some of the carbohydrates in the flour.
As you can see the germ and bran contain lots of healthy stuff that is not found in the endosperm. Whole grains are cereal grains in their natural state ie they contain all three main parts endosperm bran and germ. Refined grains are groats from which the bran and germ have been removed by grinding and sifting. Refining causes the grains to lose some of their nutritional value. Sometimes nutrients such as vitamins are added back. But as these represent a small fraction of the nutrients removed refined grains are nutritionally inferior to whole grains. Removing the bran and grinding the grains into a fine powder increases the glycemic index value (GI) of the grain ie you digest glucose from refined grains quicker than glucose from whole grains which as a diabetic is not what you want.
Plenty of breads can be classified as semi-wholemeal ie bread made form a mix of whole grains and refined grains. It is noticeable that as the ratio of whole grains in the flour drops. For example a 50:50 mix of wholemeal and refined flour usually has a GI value of at least 58 while 100% wholemeal bread has an average GI value of 51. Thus you need to be cautious when eating whole-grain bread (white bread with added whole grains) and granary bread. You should only eat small amounts of white pitta bread (GI value about 57). Whole-grain pitta however has a slightly lower GI value due to the phytates they contain which slow the rate of digestion. Conclusion So there you have it. When deciding which bread to choose to beat your diabetes you should favour bread made from 100% wholemeal flour which has a low salt (sodium) content little fat (maximum 3% by weight) and does not contain added sugar. You ll find all this information as well as the amount of fibre the bread contains on the label.