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It is the high fibre in the bran of the whole grains which slows the release of glucose. Whole grains are great for our health in many other ways thanks to their high levels of vitamins and minerals. Most whole grains are particularly rich in B vitamins. Whole grains also have plenty of protein. One of these proteins is gluten. Gluten makes dough elastic which helps it to rise and keep its shape. It constitutes about 80% of the protein in wheat seed which is one reason why wheat is popular for bread-making. It is also found in barley and rye. Making bread Bread is made by mixing up dough a paste of flour and water (or other liquid). The dough is usually leavened (see below) allowed to rise and then cooked. Breads may also contain extra ingredients such as salt or butter to improve taste.
The most popular is baking powder a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate (usually sodium bicarbonate) and one or more acid salts. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into the dough when it gets wet creating bubbles that expand the wet mixture. It is used instead of yeast for breads where the flavours of fermentation would be undesirable or where the dough lacks the elastic structure needed to hold gas bubbles for more than a few minutes. Because carbon dioxide is released at a faster rate through the acid-base reaction than through fermentation breads made by chemical leavening are called quick breads. Examples of quick breads include Irish soda bread banana bread pancakes carrot cake and muffins.The big question for diabetics of course is whether the rising method has any effect on the glycemic index (GI) value of the bread.
Improvers are additives used to quicken the rising time increase volume and enhance texture. Salt is one of the most common improvers; it is used to enhance flavour and the crumb (the inside of the bread) by strengthening the gluten. Improvers may include ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride. Certain fats such as butter vegetable oils lard and egg fat are solid at room temperature. These shortenings as they are known are used to keep the structure together during the development of the gluten. A fat content of about 3% by weight is considered best to enhance leavening. Fats also help tenderise bread and preserve its freshness. Cooking is usually by baking in an oven. But bread can be made by frying in oil (eg Indian puri) baking on a dry frying pan (eg Mexican tortillas) and by steaming (eg Chinese mantou).