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The most popular is baking powder a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate (usually sodium bicarbonate) and one or more acid salts. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into the dough when it gets wet creating bubbles that expand the wet mixture. It is used instead of yeast for breads where the flavours of fermentation would be undesirable or where the dough lacks the elastic structure needed to hold gas bubbles for more than a few minutes. Because carbon dioxide is released at a faster rate through the acid-base reaction than through fermentation breads made by chemical leavening are called quick breads. Examples of quick breads include Irish soda bread banana bread pancakes carrot cake and muffins.The big question for diabetics of course is whether the rising method has any effect on the glycemic index (GI) value of the bread.
Bread and the glycemic index The glycemic index rates foods on a scale of 1 to 100 based on how the foods affect your blood glucose levels. A rating of less than 55 is considered low 56 to 69 medium and 70 plus high. Bread ranges from 34 to 73 or more depending on the kind of grains used to make it. Bread with a low rating will be broken down more slowly in your gut giving you a steady increase in your blood sugar level. Bread with a GI value of 70 or more will cause your blood glucose to spike ie to surge and then drop suddenly. Labels for bread do not usually show whether bread has a low GI value. However you can usually estimate whether the GI value is low or not by checking the ingredients. These are usually listed in descending order by weight.
In fact brown bread is nothing more than white bread to which a (usually caramel-based) colouring has been added to make it brown; it may also have up to 10% added bran. Whole-grain bead is white bread to which whole grains have been added to increase its fibre content; eg 60% whole-grain bread . It is not the same as wholemeal bread which is made from 100% whole grains. Granary bread is made from flaked wheat grains and white or brown flour. Wheat germ bread is any kind of bread to which wheat germ has been added for flavouring. Rye bread is bread made with rye rather than wheat. It has more fibre than most other breads a darker colour and a stronger flavour. Crisp bread is a flat and dry type of bread or cracker made mostly of rye flour.