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Casein May be defined as the major protein which is precipitated at pH 4.6 and is exclusive to milk. It is present in spherical bodies as micelles which vary in size with negative surface charge. The caseins of milk may be sub-divided into five main classes αs1 αs2 β gamma and k-caseins. In milk casein is present in combination with calcium in the form of calcium caseinate or more precisely calcium hyhdrogen caseinate. Whey proteins Are those in the whey fraction after the precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. These are the alpha-lactalbumin beta-lactoglobulin immunoglobulins lactoferrin transferrin proteose-peptone fractions etc. Most of these are globular proteins subject to heat denaturation. α-lactalbumin exists in variants A and B forms and is susceptible to denaturation by unfolding of the tertiary structure. β-lactoglobulin is identical to blood globulin and insoluble in water and is responsible for the transfer of antibodies.
Normal milk contains 0.1% whereas colostrum contains 6 %. Milk fat The digestibility of milk is comparatively higher than other oils and fats. This can be attributed to existence of fat globules in aqueous phase forming an emulsion. This facilitates its easy absorption through the intestinal tract when compared to other fats which have to be emulsified with bile salts enzymes from pancreas and fat splitting lipases. Endowed with short and medium chain fatty acids milk fat can be easily absorbed when compared to long chain fatty acids because of the ability of the lipases to split the ester bonds in the former. Supplementation of milk fat in the diet increases the energy density. When compared to human milk the cow milk is low in essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids.
If you are going to buy and sell these bottles even semi-seriously the price of annual dues for the Association is well worth the money. Lactose It is the principal and typical carbohydrate of milk known as milk sugar. Glucose galactose and other sugars such as oligosaccharides are also present in traces. Lactose exists in true solution in milk. It is a disaccharide composed of two molecules of monosacharides; glucose and galactose. Lactose is readily fermented by the lactic acid fermenting bacteria producing lactic acid and has significance in milk and milk products. It exists in two isomeric forms designated as α and β forms of which the β form is more soluble than the alpha form in water. Lactose content of cow milk is 4.9 percent. The lactose content of milk is inversely proportional to the ash content of the milk.