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Fat Soluble Vitamins - include vitamins A D E and K. Water-soluble vitamins are the B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B6 (pyridoxine) Biotin Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Para-amino benzoic acid Inositol Choline Folic acid B12 and Ascorbic acid. Fat rich milk products contain large quantities of fat soluble vitamins whereas whole milk skim milk buttermilk and whey are a good source of water soluble vitamins. Minerals The portion left after ashing of milk at 150ºC is known as the ash of milk and is composed of various inorganic constituents. Ash forms about 0.75 % of milk and plays a very important role in milk and is basic in character. The minerals in milk consist principally of the chlorides citrates and bicarbonates of calcium magnesium potassium and sodium.
Udder infection promotes an increased level of chloride in the milk and depresses the secretion of lactose. Proteins Milk protein is a rich source of essential amino acids. Whey proteins are proteins that are passed along with the whey portion after the coagulation of milk. They contain 51% essential amino acids when compared to 45% in casein. The sulphur containing amino acids which are considered essential and important are found in higher concentration in whey protein than in casein. Usually the quality of egg proteins are regarded as very high. But the net protein utilization biological value and the protein efficiency ratio of milk protein come neck in neck with the quality of egg protein. Lactalbumin a whey protein whose biological value net protein utilization and protein efficiency ratio is considered superior when compared to the major milk protein casein. Normally double the quantum of vegetable protein is required to meet the daily requirement of essential amino acids when compared to that obtained from the milk proteins.
Normal milk contains 0.1% whereas colostrum contains 6 %. Milk fat The digestibility of milk is comparatively higher than other oils and fats. This can be attributed to existence of fat globules in aqueous phase forming an emulsion. This facilitates its easy absorption through the intestinal tract when compared to other fats which have to be emulsified with bile salts enzymes from pancreas and fat splitting lipases. Endowed with short and medium chain fatty acids milk fat can be easily absorbed when compared to long chain fatty acids because of the ability of the lipases to split the ester bonds in the former. Supplementation of milk fat in the diet increases the energy density. When compared to human milk the cow milk is low in essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids.