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Udder infection promotes an increased level of chloride in the milk and depresses the secretion of lactose. Proteins Milk protein is a rich source of essential amino acids. Whey proteins are proteins that are passed along with the whey portion after the coagulation of milk. They contain 51% essential amino acids when compared to 45% in casein. The sulphur containing amino acids which are considered essential and important are found in higher concentration in whey protein than in casein. Usually the quality of egg proteins are regarded as very high. But the net protein utilization biological value and the protein efficiency ratio of milk protein come neck in neck with the quality of egg protein. Lactalbumin a whey protein whose biological value net protein utilization and protein efficiency ratio is considered superior when compared to the major milk protein casein. Normally double the quantum of vegetable protein is required to meet the daily requirement of essential amino acids when compared to that obtained from the milk proteins.
Milk fat varies in amount and composition according to the breed species feed and lactation time of which feed being a major factor. Fat is distributed in globules as triglycerides (98-99 %) fat globule membrane in combination with phoshpholipids and lipoprotein (0.2 to 1.0 %) and also as free fatty acids cholesterol and phospholipids in the serum. Phospholipids These contain phosphorus in their molecules in addition to the fatty acids and glycerol; they also contain a nitrogenous base. Principally milk phospholipids are the Lecithin Cephalin and Sphingomyelin. Though fat-soluble they are hydrophilic and imbibe large quantity of water and swell. They are used as antioxidants for fat rich dairy products. Vitamins Various vitamins present in milk are as follows.
Short and medium chain fatty acids with 4-12 carbon atoms which occur at comparatively higher concentration in milk fat reported to have antibacterial and fungistatic activity. Milk fat plays another important role in preventing tooth decay by forming a protective coat over the surface of enamel. It is composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. A fatty acid molecule is composed of hydrocarbon chain and carboxyl group. Triglycerides are of two types simple and complex. In simple all the three fatty acids are of same nature whereas complex triglycerides on hydrolysis give glycerol and different fatty acids. The milk fat exists in the form of small globules of sizes ranging from 2 to 10 microns with different glycerides of low melting points in suspension.